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Leaving Cert Chemistry (Ordinary) - Revision Checklist

This is an outline of the main syllabus sections and topics for Leaving Cert Chemistry (Ordinary) .

You can print a copy of this Revision Checklist and use it to track your progress.

Click on the highlighted topics for links to key revision notes in's Exam Centre.

Covered in Class
1. Atomic Structure & Periodic Table    
Definitions & Laws (atomic number, mass number, isotopes, noble gas, transition element, energy level, ground state, excited state, aufbau principle)    
Bohr structures of atoms    
History of atomic structure and those involved (Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, Moseley)    
Structure of the Periodic Table and terminology    
The transition elements and their characteristic properties    
Mendeleef’s Periodic Table    
s,p,d configurations of atoms    
Atomic radii, trends in values    
Rutherford’s gold foil experiment    
Experiment: Flame tests    
2. Bonding, Valency & formulae, Shapes of molecules    
Definitions (ion, ionic bond, covalent bond (pure and polar), double bond, octet rule, electronegativity, hydrogen bond)    
Electronegativity, trends in values    
Predicting bond types    
Properties of compounds (state, solubility, electrical conductivity)    
Hydrogen bonding and related properties of compounds    
Valency & formulae    
NaCl crystal structure    
Shapes of simple molecules    
3. Moles and Stoichiometry    
Definitions & Laws (General gas law, s.t.p., relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass, Avogadro constant, mole, molar volume, empirical formula, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law)    
Ideal gases, and the ideal gas equation    
Stoichiometry (calculations of amounts (masses/volumes) of substances    
Experiment: Measure relative molecular mass of volatile liquid    
4. Acids & Bases    
Arhennius definitions (conjugate pair, amphoteric, alkali)    
General properties of acids, of bases and of alkalis  
Acid-base and acid-carbonate reactions    
Salts and their derivation from acids, naming salts    
Strong & weak acids    
Experiments: Tests for anions (“acid radicals”) — chloride, sulfate, carbonate, phosphate    
5. Volumetric Analysis    
Definitions (standard solution, molar solution, molarity, primary standard)    
Preparation of a standard solution    
Filling and using burettes and pipettes accurately and safely    
Accurate carrying out of titrations    
Titration problems involving acid and base    
Preparation of standard sodium carbonate solution    
Standardise hydrochloric acid    
6. Rates of Reaction    
Factors affecting rates of reactions    
Catalyst terms (catalyst, catalyst poison, promoter, negative catalyst, autocatalysis, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis)    
Study the effects on reaction rate of (i) concentration, (ii) temperature    
Monitor the rate of production of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide    
7. Molecular & Ionic Equilibria    
Definitions & Law (reactants, products, reversible reaction, equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium, equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle, pH, pOH)    
Predicting changes in equilibrium positions    
Writing equilibrium constant expressions    
Calculating pH values of strong acids and bases    
Experiments to illustrate Le Chatelier’s principle    
8. Water    
Definitions (hard water, soft water, temporary hardness, permanent hardness, flocculation, eutrophication, BOD)    
Hard water (causes and remedies)    
Purification of water for domestic use    
Sewage treatment    
Colorimetric estimation of free chlorine in swimming-pool water or bleach    
Determination of solids in water    
Measurement of pH    
9. Electrochemistry    
Definitions (electrolyte, electrolysis, electrodes, anion, cation, voltameter, electroplating, electrochemical series)    
Electrochemical series and its uses    
Electrolysis of dilute acid and of CuSO4(aq)    
10. Organic Chemistry: Hydrocarbons    
Definitions (aliphatic, aromatic, functional group, homologous series, structural formula, molecular formula, hydrocarbon, alkane, alkene, alkyne, saturated, unsaturated, substitution, addition, hydrogenation, halogenation, hydration, dehydration, isomerism)    
Alkanes, structure, properties, reactions    
Alkenes, structure, preparation, properties, reactions    
Alkynes (only ethyne), structure, preparation, properties, reactions    
Hydrogenation of alkynes and of alkenes    
Aromatic compounds    
Preparation & properties of ethene    
Preparation & properties of ethyne    
11. Fuels & Thermochemistry    
Definitions & Laws (exothermic reaction, endothermic reaction, heat of reaction, heat of combustion, heat of neutralisation, fractional distillation, petroleum, fractional distillation, cracking, reforming, octane number)    
Fossil fuels as hydrocarbon sources    
Oil refining processes    
Hydrogen manufacture    
Experiment: Determine heat of neutralisation of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide    
12. Organic Chemistry 2: Oxygen compounds    
Definitions (oxidation, chlorination, esterification, condensation, hydrolysis, saponification)    
Alcohols (primary, secondary, tertiary), structure, properties, reactions    
Aldehydes, structure, preparation, properties, reactions    
Carboxylic acids, structure, preparation, properties, reactions    
Natural products    
Preparation of soap    
Preparation & properties of ethanal    
Preparation & properties of ethanoic acid    
Manufacture of clove oil from cloves    
13. Industrial and Atmospheric chemistry    
Batch & continuous manufacturing processes    
Features involved in manufacturing industries (feedstock, rate, product yield, waste disposal, quality control, safety, costs, site location, construction)    
A case study (NH3 or HNO3 or MgO)    
Oxygen manufacture    
Fixation of nitrogen    
Nitrogen cycle    
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide    
Atmospheric pollution    
Ozone and the ozone layer    
14. Materials and Metal extraction    
Crystal structures    
Addition polymers    
Metal/non-metal comparison    
Electrochemical series    
Electrolysis of molten lead iodide    
d-block metals characteristics    
Manufacture of iron & steel    
Recycling of steel    
15. Miscellaneous topics    
Physical methods of analysis;
Mass spectrometer
Gas chromatography
Limiting reagent and percentage yields    
Organic manufacturing techniques    
Recrystallisation of benzoic acid    
Melting point determination    
Separate indicators using chromatography    

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